::Departments : Para Clinical : PATHOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY

HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT:
             Department of pathology was started in the year 1962 with the first head of the department –Dr.Shetty. MD pathology degree course was started in the year 1979 with an annual intake of 2 students. The post graduate seats were increased to four numbers/ year from the year 2007.
            As per the MCI norms the faculty position in this department is one professor, 4 associate professors, 4 assistant professors and 6 tutors.

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES:
COURSE ELIGIBILTY DURATION NO.OF SEATS/YEAR AFFILIATION
MEDICAL        
MBBS HSC 5 1/2 YEARS 150 TN Dr.M.G.R MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI
M.D PATHOLOGY MBBS 3 YEARS 4 TN Dr.M.G.R MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI
PARAMEDICAL        
DMLT HSC 2 YEARS 200 KING INSTITUTE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND RESEARCH,CHENNAI

SELECTION PROCEDURE:
  •  For MBBS DEGREE selection is based on higher secondary course marks and 15% of the seats are filled up through All India premedical entrance examination.
  • For MD PATHOLOGY degree selection is based on the Tamil Nadu state entrance examination and all India postgraduate medical entrance examination.
  • For DMLT course selection is based on the HSC marks.

UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION DETAILS:
  •  MBBS examination consists of two theory papers in pathology and one day practical examination with viva voce.
  • MD PATHOLOGY examination consists of four theory papers and two days of practical examination with viva voce.
  • DMLT examination consists of Tone theory paper in pathology and one day practical examination with viva voce.
PERIODIC ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT:

FOR POST GRADUATES:
1. JOURNAL CLUB                               : ONCE A WEEK
2. SLIDE DISCUSSION                          : ONCE A WEEK
3. SHORT TOPIC                                 : ONCE A WEEK
4. GROSS CONFERENCE                       : TWICE A MONTH
5. BASIC SCIENCE LECTURES                : ONCE A WEEK – for I year clinical PG’S
6. THEORY EXAMS                              : ONCE A MONTH

           Apart from the routine schedule periodic guest lectures by eminent pathologists, interdepartmental Clinicopathological conferences are being carried out.

FOR MBBS:

Regular lecture classes, practical classes, buzz session, symposium, project works are being carried out.

FOR DMLT:
       Regular lecture classes, practical classes, hands on training of all the investigations and biomedical waste management training are being carried out.


RESEARCH WORK:
  1. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL GRADING OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY FOR PROLIFERATIVE MARKERS IN BREAST CARCINOMA.
  2. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL NANLYSIS OF SALIVARY GLAND LESIONS AND CYTOLOGIC CORRELATION & Ki- 67 PROFILE.
  3. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDEY OF GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC TUMORS AND IHC USING P57 TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PARTIAL AND COMPLETE MOLE.
  4. ROLE OF MUCIN HISTOCHEMISTRY AND IHC IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMAS
  5. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF OVARIAN TUMORS AND ROLE OF P53 AND KI-67 IN OVARIAN EPITHELIAL TUMORS.
  6. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND P53 EXPRESSION IN INTESTINAL NEOPLASMS
  7. HISTOTHTHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND HISTOLOGICAL GRADING AND KI-67 EXPRESSION IN CNS TUMORS.
  8. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PROSTATIC LESIONS AND THE ROLE OF P63 VERSUS HMWCK IN DIFFERENTIATING PROSTATIC CANCERS FROM ITS BENIGN MIMICKERS AND PRECURSORS.
  9. MULTICYSTIC RENAL DYSPLASIA- A CASE REPORT
  10. MULTILOCULAR CYSTIC RENAL CELL CARCINOMA- A CASE REPORT
  11. EXTRASKELETAL EWING’S SARCOMA OF PARAVERTEBRAL REGION WITH LYMPHNODE  METASTASIS.
  12. RARE CASE OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA METASTASIS TO SMALL INTESTINE
  13. BLADDER SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA WITH NEPHROGENIC METAPLASIA OF URETER- A CASE REPORT.
  14.  PILOT SCREENING PROJECT FOR DETECTION OF CANCER CERVIX
AWARDS AND PRIZES WON BY THE POSTGRADUATES:

THE FOLLOWING POST GRADUATES OF OUR DEPARTMENT HAVE WON GOLD MEDAL IN TAMILNADU DR..MGR MEDICAL UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS:
  1. DR.K.BALAKRIHNAN               - 1998
  2. DR.JAMILA                            -1999
  3. DR.SUBHALAKSHMI                - 2005
  4. DR.KAVITHA                         -2007
OTHER PRIZES:
  1. DR. RAJESHWARI QUIZ WINNER AT CME in NEUROPATHOLOGY, IAPM MEET, JAN2008 HELD AT MADRAS MEDICAL COLLEGE, CHENNAI
  2. DR.GAYATHRI BEST CASE PRESENTATION IN IAPM CONFERENCE HELD AT KILPAUK MEDICAL COLLEGE, CHENNAI IN AUG.2010 FOR MULTILOCULAR CYSTIC RENAL CELL CARCINOMA- A CASE REPORT
  3. DR. MARTINA, DR.GAYATHRI –PATHOLOGY QUIZ WINNERS ATCME ON GIT PATHOLOGY HELD AT KILPAUK MEDICAL COLLEGE- AUG-2011
  4. DR.MAHESHWARI QUIZ WINNER AT TAPCON CME HELD AT MADRAS MEDICAL COLLEGE, CHENNAI- NOV.2011
CMEs:
1.CME ON BONE PATHOLOGY -2009
2.Regular CPC in collaboration with department of obstetrics and gynecology.


LIST OF LABORATORY TESTS PERFORMED:
  1. HISTOPATHOLOGY
  2. HISTOCHEMISTRY WORK UP
  3. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY
  4. FNAC
  5. CYTOLOGY- GYNAEC AND NON GYNEC
  6. COMPLETE BLOOD COUNTS – WITH SYSMEX 3PART AUTOANALYSER
  7. HB
  8. ESR
  9. PCV
  10. PERIPHERAL SMEAR
  11. BONE MARROW ASPIRATION
  12. BLEEDING TIME
  13. CLOTTING TIME
  14.  PROTHROMBIN TIME WITH COAGULOMETER
  15.  APTT- WITH COAGULOMETER
  16. URINE COMPLETE
  17. SEMEN ANALYSIS
  18. SPECIAL HEMATOLOGY TESTS:
  •  RETICULOCYTE COUNT
  • OSMOTIC FRAGILITY TEST
  • COOMBS TEST
  • CYTOCHEMISTRY
  • SICKLINGTEST
  • LE CELL
STATISTICS:
  1. HISTOPATHOLOGY               –6200-6500/ YEAR
  2. FNAC                                 -2600-2800 /YEAR
  3. FLUID CYTOLOGY                -500- 600 /YEAR
  4. GYNAEC SMEAR                   -500-600/ YEAR
  5. PERIPHERAL SMEARS            -4300- 4500/YEAR
  6. TC/DC                                - 17,000- 18,000/ YEAR
  7. HB                                    -18200/YEAR
  8. ESR                                   -6000 /YEAR
  9. PCV                                   -6200/YEAR
  10. SPECIAL HEMATOLOGY TEST - 250-300/YEAR
  11. PLATELET COUNT                -10,000-10500/YEAR
  12. URINE COMPLETE                - 86,000-90,000/YEAR
Disciplines
The following are disciplines of pathology for which the College has oversight:


1.   Histopathology
           >      General pathology
           >      Gynaec-pathology
           >      Neuropathology
           >      Cytopathology
           >      Paediatric pathology
           >      Forensic Pathology  
2.   Haematology
3.  Clinical pathology
3.   Immuno Histo
Chemistry
Collection of tissues
Histopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery, biopsy, or autopsy. The tissue is removed from the body or plant, and then placed in a fixative which stabilizes the tissues to prevent decay. The most common fixative is formalin (10% formaldehyde in water).
Preparation for histology
The tissue is then prepared for viewing under a microscope using routine processing.
Routine histopathological processing


The samples are transferred to a cassette, a container designed to allow reagents to freely act on the tissue inside. This cassette is immersed in multiple baths of progressively more concentrated ethanol, to dehydrate the tissue, followed by toluene or xylene, and finally extremely hot liquid (usually paraffin). During this 12 to 16 hour process, paraffin will replace the water in the tissue, turning soft, moist tissues into a sample miscible with paraffin, a type of wax. This process is known as tissue processing.
The processed tissue is then taken out of the cassette and set in a mold. Through this process of embedding, additional paraffin is added to create a paraffin block which is attached to the outside of the cassette.
The process of embedding then allows the sectioning of tissues into very thin (2 - 7 micrometer) sections using a microtome. The microtome slices the tissue ready for microscopic examination. The slices are thinner than the average cell, and are layered on a glass slide for staining
> Staining of the Processed Histology Slides
>This can be done to slides processed by the chemical fixation or frozen section slides. To see the tissue under a microscope, the sections are stained with one or more pigments. The aim of staining is to reveal cellular components; counterstains are used to provide contrast.
>The most commonly used stain in histopathology is a combination of hematoxylin and eosin (often abbreviated H&E). Hematoxylin is used to stain nuclei blue, while eosin stains cytoplasm and the extracellular connective tissue matrix pink. There are hundreds of various other techniques which have been used to selectively stain cells.
>> We recieve on an average of 3600 general specimens per year from various departments including Surgery,ENT,Ortho,Ophthal,Dental,Paediatrics,Neurology,Medicine, Surgical gastroenterology and Forensic medicine.

  
Gynaeco-pathology:
 
We offer consultative diagnostic interpretation of pathologic material concerning all diseases of the female genital tract.
We recieve around 1700-1800 gynaec specimens on an average per year and reporting done in the department.
Pilot screening project


Pilot screening project(PSP) is a screening project done for detecting cervical cancers covering Thanjavur,Thiruvarur,Nagapattinam,Pudukottai and Ariyalur districts(from the primary health centers).
we recieve around 1200 biopsies on an average per year
.
 Cytopathology

 
Cytopathology plays a prominent role in the rapid, accurate diagnosis of the early stages of neoplastic lesions and infections and monitors disease recurrences.
Fine needle aspiration of superficial lesions performed by an experienced cytopathologist offers the advantage of ensuring adequate specimen. Diagnoses may, in some cases, be made immediately and appropriate patient management begun. Sites lending themselves to this procedure are breast, lymph nodes, salivary gland, soft tissue lesions and thyroid gland.
We perform FNA for 2800 patients and 500 cytology smears approximately per year and reporting done in the department.


Hematology

Hematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various hematological test results. In some institutions, hematologists also manage the hematology laboratory.
We recieve about 3500 blood films on an average per year from our hospital.


ImmunoHistoChemistry

Immunohistochemistry is an important application of monoclonal as well as polyclonal antibodies to determine the tissue distribution of an antigen of interest in health and disease. Immunohistochemistry is widely used for diagnosis of cancers, because specific tumor antigens are expressed de novo or upregulated in certain cancers. The application is used routinely in validation of disease targets as it allows to visualize expression of the target in the affected tissue during the disease process. Immunohistochemistry requires the availability of biopsies, these are processed into sections with a microtome, then the sections are incubated with an appropriate antibody. The site of antibody binding is visualized under an ordinary or fluorescent microscope by a marker such as fluorescent dye, enzyme, radioactive element or colloidal gold that is directly linked to the primary antibody or to an appropriate secondary antibody.
Immunocytochemistry is a similar application that visualizes the subcellular localization of antigens of interest in isolated cells or cell populations. Cells are grown or fixed on slides, incubated with specific antibody, and then the antigen is visualized by an appropriate marker as above.
Training and examinations
The College is responsible for oversight of postgraduate education,provides an active educational programme and sponsors workshops, lectures and courses.
Graduate programs
Below are some of the activities and resources available to Pathology graduate students.
One of the most successful activities is the Pathology Weekly Presentations, which provides an opportunity for to present their work. Here postdocs and graduate students present in front of their
fellow postdocs, graduate students, as well as faculty members, who provide valuable input on their work. Furthermore, it allows them to gain more experience in giving research presentations
Other programs:   
> Journal club on every Mondays
> Gross conference on every saturdays
> Slide seminars every week
> Short topic presentations every fridays
>Internal assessment theory exams – once in a month
>Basic science classes for I st yr clinical PGs- once in a week
Undergraduate
About 140-150 students-regular batch students are handled every year.
We conduct theory,practical and tutorial classes for these students and conduct periodical internal evaluation tests for them.
DMLT course
About 100 students are given hands on training every year.Theory and practical classes are conducted for these students.
Pathology electives give students first hand knowledge of the central role pathology plays in the diagnosis of disease, and as such, are valuable for students going into almost any clinical specialty.

 

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